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Home / Blog / Baghouse Components: Operating Principle, Parts, Dust Collector Control

Baghouse Components: Operating Principle, Parts, Dust Collector Control

Author: Michael Klepik, Chief Executive Officer
Baghouses are used in food industry, power facilities, metallurgy, construction enterprises, woodworking, and other facilities for filtering cement, wood, coal, etc.

They are a type of dry dust collection equipment. It has higher gas cleaning efficiency compared to any type of electrostatic precipitators.

Baghouses are the most versatile type of contaminant cleaning equipment, as they are capable of reliable and efficient operation in almost all industrial processes that produce dust. It can operate continuously.

Their versatility also includes the fact that one with specified characteristics can be manufactured in several design variations, with different dimensions. In most cases, it is possible to select (or develop) the design, taking into account the dimensions and constraints of the existing installation space for the setup.

Operating Principle

Contaminated gas enters through an air duct (or flue) into the dirty chamber. After that, particles settle on the sleeves, and the cleaned air passes through the round sleeves and enters the clean chamber. The cleaned gas exits the filter with the help of a fan, either outdoors or back into the room.
How does a Bag Filter Work?


The baghouse compartments are typically designed to separate and manage different stages of the filtration process, such as contaminant collection, filtration, and clean air discharge. It depends on the configuration.

Typically, the basic configuration consists of baghouse parts:
  • A housing with bags (round or flat depending on the incoming particulate load).
  • Clean air chamber with self-cleaning system.
  • Hopper with a dust damper.
  • Filter maintenance is carried out through convenient service doors.
  • Louver dampers can be installed at the inlet to protect the gas purifying elements.
The selection of material for baghouse filter components is pivotal. It's tailored to the specific particulate composition, environmental aggressiveness, particle size, and other factors. Generally, non-woven synthetic materials are preferred for their efficiency.
Baghouse accessories such as seals and gaskets are essential for maintaining a tight seal in the filtration equipment.

Baghouses are manufactured for both indoor and outdoor operation. The latter involves the presence of the following components:
  • A sheltering canopy protecting the filter from weather conditions;
  • Heating of the bags regeneration system (and, if necessary, hoppers);
  • Thermal insulation of the housing in case of possible gas condensation.

Types of Fans

Types of baghouse fan commonly used in aspiration systems, including axial, diagonal, radial, and cross-flow fans.

Axial fans with a circular propeller have an airflow parallel to the axis of rotation. One of their key advantages is their minimal power consumption when there is no opposing motion of the medium and at a constant rotational speed. However, their power consumption increases when there is a counterflow.

Axial fans are typically used for cooling electronic equipment. Their construction includes an external casing with mounting holes for attachment and an electric motor built into the fan housing, making it compact and saving space for other equipment components.

In diagonal fans, air intake occurs in the axial direction, while it is discharged diagonally. The casing of such blowers has a conical shape, which increases the tangential velocity of the airflow required to generate pressure. Another advantage over axial blowers (of comparable power) is the lower noise level.

Radial fans are more efficient when high pressure is required, or when the cooling airflow needs to be turned by 90 degrees. They are distinguished as high-pressure radial blowers and dust fans.

Cross-flow fans are most commonly used for blowing over a large surface area. The gas passes through the blades twice in the radial direction (during intake and discharge). The blades create a twisting motion in the internal air ducts, ensuring a stable flow.

Inlet Pipe Configuration

Baghouse inlet pipe configuration may include parameters such as pipe diameter, shape, angle of inclination, length, and other characteristics. Factors that influence the efficiency and uniformity of gas distribution include gas flow rate, particulate characteristics, and the design of the filtration system.

Research has shown that the diameter of the inlet pipe significantly affects the velocity profile and gas distribution within the baghouse. For instance, larger diameter pipes tend to promote more uniform gas flow compared to smaller ones, reducing the risk of uneven particulate distribution and potential filter clogging.

The shape of the inlet pipe can influence the trajectory of gas flow, with designs such as smooth bends or gradual transitions helping to minimize turbulence and pressure drops.

The angle of inclination of the inlet pipe also plays a crucial role in directing gas flow towards the filter bags. Optimal angles can vary depending on the specific requirements of the filtration system and the characteristics of the particulate matter being captured.

The length of the inlet pipe impacts residence time and velocity distribution, with longer pipes allowing for better mixing and dispersion of the gas stream before it enters the filtration chamber.

Louvre Dampers

Sometimes we recommend to equip louvre dampers. The main advantage of louvre dampers is that upon entering the air filter, the air "hits" the louvres and disperses evenly across the filter elements, reducing their wear level. Installing louvre dampers allows saving space in the aspiration system. The presence of this element allows working with dust containing medium and large particles, which go directly into the hopper after hitting the louver grid.

Hopper for Dust Collection and Discharge

In our standard configuration, our equipment includes a conical dust baghouse hopper with a round damper that can be manually operated for opening and closing, or a wheeled box.

Upon request, we can equip them with an under-sleeve hopper with a screw for continuous unloading of particulate matter from the hopper with a gate valve. This way, the filter won't need to be stopped to unload the accumulated particulate. Additionally, a level sensor is installed in the hopper.

Moreover, the hopper can be equipped with a vibrator or vibration unit to prevent particulates from sticking to the hopper walls.

We also manufacture hoppers and supports according to the client's production requirements. For example, for our client in the woodworking industry, we equipped the hopper for unloading into big bags.

Unloading of Captured Product

Distributor for discharge of baghouse is a component used to evenly distribute the emissions or waste accumulated in the gas purification system for subsequent removal or disposal. Typically, this component is located at the bottom and directs the emissions into containers.

To solve this task, various devices are used: screw conveyors, gate feeders, gate valves, manual screw dampers. Depending on the technical requirements and properties of the contaminant being removed, various dust removal schemes can be employed. To control the automatic discharge from the filter hopper, one or two dust level sensors can be installed, ensuring complete automation.
Organizing unloading
Organizing unloading
Customer can choose from the following unloading methods:
  • In the basic configuration, a manual method is used - a manual damper is employed, manually opened to unload dust from the collector into a container.
  • An automated method - for unloading, a gate valve or double flasher is used, often together with a screw conveyor.
The main difference lies in the manual labor required for unloading the captured product. The automated method can be integrated into the production chain and, for example, return the product back to the conveyor.

Turning Vanes

Baghouse turning vanes (or simply turning vanes) are components used to control the direction of flow. They are installed inside the baghouse, typically near corners or bends, to ensure smooth and even distribution of air movement. Turning vanes help prevent turbulence and ensure efficient operation of filtration elements such as bags or cartridges in the gas purification system. This component plays an important role in ensuring optimal performance.

Dust Collector Control

Baghouse controller regulates the airflow and pressure within the system, ensuring optimal performance and efficient particle extraction.

We offer to equip the device with a fully automatic control system, analysis, fire suppression, and other features. In the standard configuration, a timer controller is installed, and it is also possible to equip it with Siemens, OVEN, or other controllers, depending on your needs.

Enhancing filter management will be aided by a dust sensor. The application of the baghouse particulate sensor includes:
  • Monitoring the integrity of the bag;
  • Detecting malfunctions in the aspiration setup;
  • Assessing filtration efficiency.

The baghouse dust sensor serves a critical purpose in monitoring and maintaining the efficiency. By continuously detecting the level of particle accumulation within the setup, it provides real-time feedback to operators, enabling timely interventions to prevent excessive buildup. This proactive approach helps to ensure optimal air movement, prolong the lifespan of bags, and ultimately enhances the overall performance.

Drying Process Emissions

Dryer baghouses play a crucial role in various industrial processes where drying is involved, such as in the production of food, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and minerals. During drying operations, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter, and other pollutants may be released into the atmosphere. Equipment is specifically designed to capture and control these emissions to comply with environmental regulations and maintain air quality standards. A dryer equipment typically features a more robust construction and special filter materials capable of withstanding high temperatures and aggressive chemical environments that may be present during the drying process.

Replacement Parts

Baghouse replacement parts typically include components and elements that may undergo wear or damage during operation and require regular replacement or servicing. Some of these may include:
  • Bags are among the most critical parts, used to capture solid particles.
  • Valves control the airflow in the setup and may require replacement due to wear of seals or other defects.
  • Gaskets and seals are used to prevent air leaks in the setup and may require replacement when their service life expires or damage is detected.
  • Motors and fans are used to provide the necessary airflow in the setup and may require replacement in case of failure or wear.
  • Controllers and sensors are used for monitoring and controlling processes in the system and may require replacement in case of failure or obsolescence.
  • Compressed air valves, pressure regulators, electric motors, and other elements, depending on the specific design and characteristics.
Baghouse dust collector parts undergo rigorous testing and engineering to withstand the harsh conditions within industrial environments. Their durability and reliability are crucial, as they play a pivotal role in safeguarding the health and well-being of workers while minimizing the impact on the surrounding ecosystem. By investing in high-quality baghouse filter parts and adhering to a comprehensive maintenance schedule, industries can uphold their commitment to environmental stewardship while sustaining efficient production processes.

Regular maintenance of baghouse filter interiors ensures optimal filtration efficiency and prolongs its lifespan.
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We always make extremely precise calculations and provide assistance in choosing the optimal cleaning systems, which usually takes 1 to 2 days.
Head of Engineering,
Vladimir Nikulin
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