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Mastering Pulse Jet Baghouse Design and Operating Principles: Air Consumption, Blow Pipe Diameter, and Practical Applications

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Author: Michael Klepik, Chief Executive Officer

How Does a Pulse Jet Baghouse Work?

A pulse jet baghouse is a type of dust collector that uses this technology to clean the filter bags.
The contaminated air enters into the unit via the air duct (or gas pipe) into the dirt chamber. After that, the dust particles settle on the bags as the cleaned air enters into the clean chamber. The purified gas exits from the filter outside or back into the facility with the help of the fan.

Pneumatic Purification System

Over time, dust accumulates on the filtered bags, increasing the filter's resistance. To ensure smooth operation without pressure imbalances, regular cleaning of the air purifying elements is essential. The cleaning process is as follows:

Air pipes located in the clean air chamber above initiate from the air system's diaphragm valves. These valves, connected to receivers storing compressed air, facilitate the pulse jet cleaning.

Air from the compressor is directed to these receivers. The valves activate periodically, channeling air into the pipes, which is then dispersed inside the filter bag through nozzles.

This process agitates the filtered bags, releasing the trapped dust, which then falls into the hopper accumulator.

Dust removal from the hopper accumulator can be performed in three ways based on the system’s design requirements: manually through a dust latch, mechanically via a “double flap,” or automatically with a “flood hatch.”
Pneumatic setup
Pneumatic setup

Application

Standard pulse jet baghouses are versatile and widely used across various industries due to their efficiency in dust collection and ability to handle large volumes of gas. Key applications include:
  • Food industry
  • Chemical industry
  • Metallurgical industry
  • Wood-processing industry
  • Oil and gas industry
  • Mineral extraction
  • Flour mills
  • Cement plants
  • Asphalt and concrete plants
  • Plastic and glass item production factories
  • PWM and plaster production
  • Production sites equipped with various types of ovens
These systems are valued for their efficiency, ability to handle a range of particle sizes and concentrations, and adaptability to different industrial environments.

Advantages

Here are the key advantages of pulse jet baghouse filters:
  • They offer high efficiency for various particle sizes.
  • Maintenance frequency is reduced due to automated cleaning.
  • They can adapt to different gas flows and particles concentrations.
  • They are effective in handling high dust loads.
  • Efficient purification leads to a longer filter life.
  • They have a compact design relative to some other mechanisms.

Overview Filters

Torch-Air introduces the Blizzard series, a versatile line of pulse jet baghouse dust collectors. Key features include:
  • Available with round or flat bags for various applications.
  • Designed with gas inlets through dampers for improved particles separation.
  • Adaptable, modular configuration for easy transport and installation.
  • Automated management for optimal performance and reduced manual input.
  • Our product range includes a large capacity pulse jet baghouse, offered in both compact and large-scale models to meet various space and capacity needs.
  • Mobile Units.
The Blizzard series exemplifies Torch-Air's commitment to innovative, efficient dust collection solutions for diverse industrial needs.

Construction

How does a Blizzard Bag Filter RS work
The layout of a pulse jet baghouse involves several key components designed for efficient particulate collection and filtration.
To fully understand the operational mechanics of the setup, it's helpful to refer to a pulse jet baghouse diagram, which illustrates the placement and function of each component.
Here's a general outline of its structure and components:
  • Dust-laden atmosphere enters through the inlet. The configuration often includes mechanisms to slow down the airflow to help larger particles settle out before reaching the filter elements.
  • Pre-separation Chamber: Some configurations include a pre-separation chamber where larger particles drop out of the airflow before reaching the filters. This helps in reducing the load on them.
  • Bags and Cages: The central component of the pulse jet fabric filter baghouse, responsible for collection, is composed of numerous long, cylindrical bags, each supported by metal cages.
  • Venturi and Blow Pipes: Above each bag, there is a venturi nozzle to help distribute the impulse jet evenly for thorough purification. The blow pipes are connected to these and release the baghouse compressed air for cleaning.
  • Hopper: The bottom part of the equipment is a hopper that collects the dislodged particles. It usually has a sloped design to facilitate the movement of particulate matter towards the pollutant’s removal mechanism.
  • Dust Discharge System: This can include rotary valves, screw conveyors, or other mechanisms for removing the collected dust from the hopper and transporting it to a storage or disposal site.
  • Compressed Air Header: This is the main supply line for compression, feeding into the blow pipes. It is utilized for the baghouse pulse jet cleaning mechanism.
  • Valves and Air Tank: Valves control the release of compressed air from the tank into the blow pipes. The tank stores the compressed air needed for the purification impulses.
  • Clean Air Plenum and Outlet: After passing through the filter materials, the purified atmosphere collects in a plenum and exits through an outlet.
  • Access Doors: For maintenance purposes, devices are equipped with access doors.
  • Control System: A central control setup regulates the purification process, often based on differential pressure across the filters.
  • Differential Pressure Gauges: These gauges monitor the pressure drop across the filter media, which helps in determining when purification is needed.
  • The actual configuration and layout can vary depending on the specific requirements of the application, the size of the system, and the manufacturer's specifications. Some units are modular, allowing for expansion or customization based on the needs of the facility.

Operating Rules

Adhering strictly to the operating procedures for pulse jet baghouses is crucial for maintaining their efficiency and reliability in industrial dust filtration setups. The operation of a pulse jet baghouse involves several key steps:
  1. Conducting scheduled inspections and maintenance of the equipment to prevent breakdowns and operational failures.
  2. Proper and timely purification or replacement of gas purifying elements to ensure filtration efficiency and prevent clogging.
  3. Maintaining optimal operation parameters.
  4. Monitoring the performance indicators of the device, including flow rate and particulate capture levels.
  5. Following safety procedures during operation and maintenance of the equipment to protect personnel and prevent accidents.
  6. Responding to changes in the characteristics of pollutants, which may require adjustments in the equipment's operation parameters.
Our company currently has a high-efficiency pulse jet baghouse for sale, ideal for industries looking to improve their air quality and dust control systems.
Torch-Air Manufactured Scrubber
The Blizzard by Torch Air

Air Consumption

The compressed air consumption in a baghouse is a crucial aspect of its operation. The amount of air used can vary based on several factors:
1) Larger units with more filter elements will naturally consume more compressed air.
2) With increased frequency and duration of the jet system's activation, the consumption of compressed resources intensifies.
3) Higher pressure inside leads to increased atmospheric consumption. However, this needs to be balanced as excessive pressure can damage the filtration pouches.
4) The number of valves and their size also influence the consumption.
5) The nature of the particulate being collected and the type of filter media can impact the required cleaning frequency and intensity.

To estimate the air consumption for a pulse jet baghouse, consider these general guidelines:
  • Typically, each impulse lasts between 0.1 to 0.2 seconds.
  • Frequency depends on the particulate burden and can range from every few minutes to several times an hour.
  • Pressure: Commonly set between 80 to 100 psi (pounds per square inch).
  • Air Volume per Pulse: This can vary, but a rough estimate might be between 1 to 3 cubic feet of air per impulse per bag.
For a precise calculation, you would need to know the specific parameters of your pulse baghouse dust collector, including the number of bags, valve size, and system settings. It's also advisable to consult with the manufacturer or a specialist to obtain more accurate figures tailored to your specific apparatus.

Diameter of the Blow Pipe

The diameter of the blow pipe in a pulse jet baghouse is a critical configuration parameter that directly impacts the effectiveness of the purification mechanism. However, the exact diameter can vary based on several factors including the size and the specific requirements of the airborne particle filtration unit.

Here are some general guidelines:
  • Blow pipes in jet baghouses typically have widths ranging from about 1 to 3 inches (2.5 to 7.6 cm).
  • The width of the blow pipe typically correlates with the bag dimensions. A larger scale demands increased gas volume for efficient functioning.
  • The diameter must be sufficient to allow the required volume of gas to pass through at the necessary velocity for purification. The aim is to create a shock wave that travels down the length of the bag, dislodging the dust cake.
  • A smaller diameter pipe could create higher velocity but may also lead to higher pressure drop in a pulse-jet baghouse and potentially more wear on the system.
  • It's important to consult the pulse baghouse manufacturer or a qualified engineer for specific recommendations based on the particular application and setup configuration.
  • In some cases, it may be customized based on specific operational requirements or constraints of the facility.
In summary, while there's no one-size-fits-all answer, the diameter of the blow pipes in a pulse air filtering baghouse is typically in the range of 1 to 3 inches, with the exact size determined by the specific needs and design of the dust collection.

Design

As Torch-Air, a leader in the manufacturing and design of pulse jet baghouse equipment, we prioritize innovation and efficiency in our arrangements. We understand the importance of a well-designed particulate matter collection unit, and we're proud to offer these essential recommendations based on our extensive experience in the field:

The dimensions and material should be chosen based on the type of pollutants and volume of airflow. Ensure they are neither too long nor too short, as this affects purification efficiency and the capacity to capture particulate matter.

Proper Air-to-Cloth Ratio — this is crucial for balancing filtration efficiency with the cleaning cycle. An incorrect ratio can lead to excessive load or inefficient pollutants removal.

Design the jet system (including blow pipes, nozzles, and valves) to ensure even and effective purification. The setup should deliver the right amount of air pressure and volume for the specific application.
Incorporate a pre-separation chamber or cyclone separator to remove larger particles before they reach the filtration units. This reduces the load on the units and extends their lifespan.
Filter Construction
Filter Construction
Provide easy access to gas purifying elements, cages, and impulse jet components. Consider factors like door placement and safe access paths for maintenance personnel.

Use an advanced control mechanism for regulating the cleaning cycles based on differential pressure or other operational parameters.

Ensure the design complies with environmental regulations regarding emissions. Also, factor in safety aspects like explosion relief in case of combustible pollutants applications.
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We always make extremely precise calculations and provide assistance in choosing the optimal cleaning systems, which usually takes 1 to 2 days.
Head of Engineering,
Vladimir Nikulin
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