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Home / Blog / What is a Baghouse: Uses, Filter Diagram, Types, and Operation

What is a Baghouse: Uses, Filter Diagram, Types, and Operation

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Author: Michael Klepik, Chief Executive Officer

What is a Baghouse?

To effectively address air quality issues in industrial settings, it is important to define a baghouse as a system designed to clean large volumes of dust-laden gases. Inside this device, a special fabric mounted on a rigid frame captures fine particulate matter from the gas stream, preventing it from being released into the environment. This method is both highly effective and cost-efficient.

Where are Baghouse Filters Used?

The equipment is extensively utilized across virtually all modern manufacturing sectors:
  • Cement, concrete, asphalt, and other construction material plants
  • Glass and ceramics manufacturing
  • Both ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgical industries
  • Wood processing
  • Coal-fired power plants, used to mitigate coal dust in their exhaust gases
  • Waste incineration and disposal facilities
  • Grain processing and flour milling
  • Sugar refineries
  • Chemical production, particularly where there is a risk of powdered substances entering the atmosphere
  • Pharmaceutical sector
  • Textile manufacturing
  • Mining operations
  • Foundries, where airborne metal dust and sand may coexist
  • Ventilation systems aimed at maintaining air purity and reducing allergens
As evident, understanding the baghouse meaning is pivotal for professionals across diverse manufacturing domains.

BLIZZARD
BLIZZARD

Baghouse Design Essentials

The backbone of the filtration setup is undoubtedly the bags themselves. Achieving effective operation requires addressing several design challenges related to them. What is the purpose of a baghouse design?

Firstly, it's crucial to determine the optimal amount of filtration material inside the filter housing. This varies case by case, depending largely on the required filtration area, which is calculated based on factors like the volume of air needing purification per unit time and the concentration of pollutants. Higher air volumes and pollutant concentrations necessitate a larger surface area for effective purification. Additionally, some scenarios require maintaining a specific gas flow rate through the unit, achievable by adjusting the number of bags.

The second design challenge involves ensuring uniform dust distribution. This is managed through a baghouse diagram, where the housing is initially designed to minimize dead zones and ensure an even airflow distribution. Internal partitions and guides can be installed to aid in this process. Subsequently, the bags are positioned to facilitate uniform airflow through each one.

These measures collectively ensure the effective purification of incoming gases, which is the primary baghouse filter's function.
Diagram
Diagram

Operating Principle

The operational principle involves several primary stages:
  1. A contaminated gas-air mixture is gathered from all sources of pollution (such as industrial facilities and furnaces) and is fed into the cleaning channel via ductwork using a forced draft fan.
  2. The gas then enters a chamber where the particulate matter comes into contact with the external surface of the filter material, settling on it.
  3. The purified gas, having passed through the cloth, is expelled outside through an exhaust pipe.
  4. Mechanical particulates that have accumulated in the hopper-collector from the sleeves are discharged from it using a gate or rotating screw mechanism.
Another important stage to note is the regeneration of a treatment system. During ongoing air purification, a layer of dust accumulates on the fabric, which can impede the equipment's efficiency. Therefore, regular maintenance of the system is essential. There are various purifying methods which we will explore further.
Blizzard Bag Filter | Round Bags and Flat Bags

Types of Filter Self-Cleaning Systems

For effective removal of solid mechanical particulates, the filter fabric requires periodic cleaning. There are two primary methods: intermittent and continuous. In continuous ones, regeneration occurs during uninterrupted circulation of the gas-air mixture. Continuous methods typically involve pulse jetting or vibration cleaning of bags. Intermittent regeneration, on the other hand, is performed manually. After halting the air purification process, the sleeve is temporarily isolated from the contaminated stream.

In certain cases, additional washing of the filter fabric elements is necessary, such as in sugar production. This practice helps prolong the baghouse operation lifespan but does not preclude other regeneration techniques.
  • Pulse jet purging or pneumatic purging is one of the best methods for filter cleaning. A stream of compressed air is directed into the bags, causing the dust trapped in the fabric pores to be released and the pores to be cleaned.
  • Shaking method, as the name suggests, involves automated mechanical action on the bags. This includes reciprocating movements of the bags themselves rather than vibrating the equipment housing.
  • Mechanical cleaning involves the operator manually shaking the modules during equipment downtime.

Baghouse Filter Types

Bags used in filtration systems are designed with simplicity in mind, comprising two primary components: the filtering fabric and the frame.

The frame serves a secondary function, primarily to support the element and prevent it from collapsing, thereby maintaining its working surface area. The type of frame employed determines the bag's configuration, which can either be cylindrical or flat in shape.

Round frames have a cylindrical shape and are used in environments with very high dust loads. They are also suitable for high capacities, making them typically preferred for industrial applications.

Flat bags are used where compact equipment is necessary and the dust load is relatively low. They occupy less space in the installation, thereby reducing the overall size of the setup. They are typically employed in specialized areas, such as the food industry or laboratory environments, where there is no room for large modules.
Dust settling chambers are classified by the direction of airflow: horizontal or vertical. A horizontal baghouse includes additional deflecting baffles inside to enhance inertial dust deposition as particles encounter obstacles.

Vertical dust settling chambers feature a diameter significantly larger than that of the smokestack. This design slows down the dust-laden airflow, allowing heavier particles to separate from the main stream more effectively.

Key Parameters to Consider

The core of the baghouse filter is undoubtedly the filter material. Its properties determine the device's applications, efficiency, performance, and other characteristics.

When examining types of baghouse bags, it's important to consider several key parameters:
  • Material Type: Woven materials are made from natural or synthetic fibers. Nonwoven materials include polymer structures such as polyurethane, polyester, polyamide, polypropylene, and fiberglass. Nonwoven materials are often used in industries requiring high resistance to aggressive chemical substances and harsh conditions.
  • Air Permeability: These measures how much air can pass through a unit area of fabric per unit time. The optimal value hinges on the specific baghouse filter's use. For example, the cement industry requires high throughput and therefore high air permeability, while the pharmaceutical industry requires filtration of very fine particles, necessitating a denser component structure.
  • Density: The mass per unit area of the material. Generally, denser material is less permeable to air but more effective at capturing finer dust particles.
  • Operating Temperature: Indicates the temperature range within which the fabric performs optimally without degrading. Some materials are suitable only for low temperatures, while others can withstand more harsh conditions. Additionally, the short-term operating temperature refers to brief exposures above the optimal range that the material can endure without compromising performance.
  • Resistance to Harsh Environments: Selecting an inappropriate component for chemical processing can lead to rapid deterioration, compromising the seal and allowing dust accumulation to escape into the environment.
  • Particle Size Retention: Specifies the fabric's ability to capture dust particles ranging from very small (1 µm) to larger than 30 µm. Larger particles necessitate denser substances.
  • Cleanability: Some types of baghouses allow components to be cleaned, while others require periodic replacement.
  • Additional Characteristics: Including moisture resistance, oil resistance, anti-static properties, and more.
Our company custom manufactures baghouses of any type upon request. We offer our customers both budget-friendly options and high-performance installations.
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We always make extremely precise calculations and provide assistance in choosing the optimal cleaning systems, which usually takes 1 to 2 days.
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Vladimir Nikulin
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