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Acid Fume Scrubbers Unveiled: Definitions, Designs, Prices, Types, and Materials

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Author: Michael Klepik, Chief Executive Officer
Sources of acid fumes can include industrial processes such as chemical manufacturing, metal processing (particularly pickling and plating operations), combustion of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas), and certain laboratory procedures. Fumes are often emitted during the production or use of acidic substances, leading to potential environmental and health hazards.

Definition

An acid fume scrubber is a pollution control device designed to remove acidic gases or fumes from industrial exhaust streams. It operates by passing the contaminated air through a scrubbing solution, usually composed of water or other liquid, which reacts with and absorbs the pollutants. The scrubber promotes a corrosive chemical reaction between the corrosive vapors and the liquid, neutralizing or converting the harmful substances into less hazardous forms.

Key Scrubber Elements

An acid fume scrubber design includes an inlet for contaminated air, spray nozzles to disperse scrubbing liquid (usually water), a contact zone for chemical reactions between corrosive fumes and liquid, a mist eliminator, and an outlet for cleaned air. Monitoring, material selection, waste disposal, and safety features are crucial considerations. Design specifics depend on factors like fume type and concentration, air volume, and desired efficiency.

Price and Selection

The price of an acid fume scrubber can vary based on factors such as its capacity, design, features. For accurate and up-to-date pricing information, we recommend contacting the supplier directly. For effective selection, please provide:
  • Required capacity, cfm or m³/h.
  • Gas temperature.
  • Composition of the gas-air mixture, chemical formula.
  • Concentration of the used acid.
  • Concentration of vapors before entering the scrubber, ppm or mg/m³.
When choosing a filter for toxic vapors or other aggressive environments, it is crucial to understand the concentration of the contamination. The size of the mass exchange chamber will depend on it. The higher the concentration, the larger the chamber.

Significant attention is given to selecting the substance that will be used to scrub the acid for its effective retention. Alkali is commonly used. The choice of the pump for the corrosive vapor filter depends on the amount of liquid being pumped. Additional pumps are often installed for reagent dosing into the tank. The dosing is regulated by a pH meter. When the level on the meter reaches the maximum, the capture of chemical components ceases.Our engineers will perform calculations for the gas purification unit. Depending on the specifics of your production, the filtration product may include neutral salts that can be discharged for treatment. Additionally, as a result of gas purification, a marketable product can be obtained for further use or supply to others.

Types of Acid Fume Scrubber

Plastic Vertical Scrubber TORNADO-RP With Random Packing

Acid fume scrubber system TORNADO-RP is specifically designed for chemical industry enterprises and incorporates a wetting structure and a multi-stage droplet capture system. The installation demonstrates high efficiency in neutralizing most types of acidic, alkaline, and other vapors with aggressive components.
Overview TORNADO-RP
For more than five decades, this renowned filtration system has gained global recognition, establishing a strong reputation as a dependable purifier for dust, smoke, acid, alkalis, and various combinations thereof.

The design of the installation includes a column with support-distribution nozzles. During operation, they are sprayed with water or another composition, creating a contact area for phases. Plastic or rubber nozzles in the form of balls or Pauly rings form a dense layer during gas cleaning. It is through the passage of the contaminated stream through this layer that acidic components are removed.

Now, in more detail. Gas for purification is introduced into the receiving chamber. Moving in the direction opposite to the flow of the flushing liquid, the contaminated gas passes through the layer of stationary nozzles. It is in this layer that the aggressive components are captured. The gas-liquid emulsion then goes to the droplet separator, where it separates into phases. After that, the liquid with impurities goes to the circulation tank, and the purified gas goes to the droplet separator and is then discharged into the atmosphere.

Plastic Scrubber BOREAS-P2 With Random Packing

BOREAS-P2 consists of a horizontally arranged housing with installed nozzles. They wet the gas-air flow supplied for cleaning. Nozzles can be installed in several rows if necessary. The contaminated stream then passes through a dense layer of nozzles, which detain the majority of acidic elements.
Overview BOREAS-P2
Then, the stream is directed to a multi-stage droplet collector. In it, the contaminated liquid is separated from the gas and enters the circulation tank. The gas, after complete purification, is discharged into the atmosphere. In the tank, the liquid is separated from the sediment and through pipelines returns to the installation for reuse.

Plastic Scrubber BOREAS-P3 With Random Packings and an Enlarged Column

In this PVC horizontal acid fume scrubber, a more refined and multi-stage filtration of acid, alkali, and other aggressive compounds is carried out. The impressive size of the scrubber and the multi-level droplet capture system of the installation are necessary for prolonged and fine filtration of the contaminated stream.

The operating principle is similar to the model presented above. The difference lies in the volumes and concentration of acidic components in the contaminated gas. Large industrial and manufacturing companies acquire the BOREAS-P3 installation.
For smaller industrial production volumes, the small acid fume scrubber, BOREAS-P2, is sufficient.
Horizontal BOREAS-P3
Horizontal BOREAS-P3

Optimal Chemical Scrubber Materials

Toxic vapors can deteriorate regular filters within a few months of operation, while polypropylene filters are resistant to such impact. Therefore, special chemical-resistant plastic scrubbers are used to purify the air from chemical fumes.
Materials used in air scrubber for acid fumes play a crucial role in the effectiveness and durability of the system. Here are some key materials commonly employed:
  • Polypropylene (PP): A prevalent choice due to its chemical resistance to various acids. Polypropylene exhibits high corrosion resistance and good mechanical strength.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): Used where resistance to acids is required but not to the same extent as polypropylene. PVC can be a more economical option.
  • Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP): A composite material consisting of fiberglass and resin. It has high chemical resistance and strength, suitable for conditions requiring increased corrosion resistance.
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE): Known by the trade name Teflon. Possesses excellent chemical inertness and high-temperature resistance. Widely used for lining internal surfaces.
  • Stainless Steel: For structural components such as frames. Stainless steel provides strength and corrosion resistance.
The choice of materials depends on the specific operating conditions, type of chemical gases, temperature requirements, and the desired durability and efficiency of the system. A combination of different materials may be used to optimize scrubber performance in specific industrial scenarios.

Cleansing liquid

The acid fume scrubber works efficiently to neutralize and capture harmful acidic vapors, ensuring a safer industrial environment. Neutralization of caustic fumes occurs inside the wet scrubber. Below is a table of the cleaning solution used.
This is a general guideline, and specific conditions may require an individualized approach to selecting the scrubber solution.

Torch-Air, the acid fume scrubber factory, is dedicated to manufacturing advanced scrubbing solutions for efficient elimination of corrosive fumes, ensuring environmental safety and compliance.
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We always make extremely precise calculations and provide assistance in choosing the optimal cleaning systems, which usually takes 1 to 2 days.
Head of Engineering,
Vladimir Nikulin
CALCULATION AND SELECTION
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