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Gas and Dust Emission Control Scrubber: Types and Solutions

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Author: Michael Klepik, Chief Executive Officer
In modern production, the purification of gas emissions into the atmosphere is necessary. The devices used for this purpose must comply with regulations to prevent excessive amounts of harmful substances from entering the environment.
Purification equipment is categorized based on its principle of operation and is designed to remove fundamentally different pollutants from gas-air mixtures. Additionally, purification systems vary in terms of capacity, size, and weight.
The factory emission scrubber plays a crucial role in reducing environmental pollutants by effectively filtering out harmful substances from the plant's exhaust gases.

What is a scrubber used to control?

Typically, mechanical gas emission purification in industrial settings is performed using scrubbers, efficient industrial devices. They are also known as gas washers or wet dust collectors.
Scrubbers are effective at capturing:
  • Fine ash particles from smoke;
  • Metal compounds, sulfur-organic complexes;
  • Phenol and formaldehyde;
  • Vapors of organic and inorganic acids;
  • Impurities that can be absorbed by water vapor.
Relatively heavy aerosols, especially those prone to condensation or reacting with water, are rapidly absorbed.
A comprehensive analysis of the challenges and solutions in using control scrubbers for smokestack emissions reveals their importance across various industries. This research encompasses various aspects: from the chemical processes within scrubbers that neutralize harmful gases, to the physical mechanisms that filter out particulate matter.
Scrubber by Torch-Air
Scrubber by Torch-Air

Gas Emission Control Equipment

Most of the gas emission control devices are represented by specific design scrubbers. Let's examine the main types of these devices.

Spray Towers

A round or rectangular column is filled with a gas-air flow. Liquid is sprayed from nozzles, coming into contact with contaminants and absorbing predominantly large-diameter dust particles. Simultaneously, cooling takes place. Lowering the exhaust temperature itself reduces the impact on the environment, and there is also less wear and tear on pipes in contact with heated streams.

Packed Bed

These are columns, often cylindrical, filled with internal nozzles. Due to the frequent contact of dust particles with the nozzles, the likelihood of contaminant absorption is increased. Spray towers are recommended for capturing well-wettable particles.
The new air emissions scrubber system installed in the facility significantly improves air quality by efficiently removing pollutants from industrial exhaust.

Plate (Tray Tower) Scrubbers

These scrubbers have a complex structure. Inside a disassembled shell, there are overflow or vented plates. When the slotted or perforated plates are sprayed with liquid, preferably with the addition of surfactants, foam is generated. Foamy bubbles capture dust particles, and the waste is removed in the form of foamy sludge.
Gas Emission Scrubber Diagram: Detailed Visual Guide

Venturi Scrubbers

In these scrubbers, the contaminated medium is delivered through pipes under significant pressure, along with absorbing liquid. Droplets capture dust, which then settles in a droplet collector.
A standard emission control scrubber includes the following main components:
  • Housing (column);
  • Inlet and outlet pipes;
  • Liquid pipeline;
  • Storage tank;
  • Sludge collector.
Additionally, a pumping station is required to supply water at the specified pressure.

Dust Emission Control

As mentioned earlier, the primary method of dust collection involves wetting dust-like particles. Any industrial exhaust gas cleaning system that deals with dust operates in a wet mode. The contact area between the dusty medium and water is increased, and the contact time is extended through the use of special devices, such as nozzles that spray liquid, plates with holes, and moistened walls of the chambers. The dirty gas-air mixture is introduced in a way that generates turbulence at the inlet. The larger the dust particles, the lower the required velocity for their effective capture, reducing the load on compressors and electricity consumption.

Order gas emission scrubbers from us according to standard designs or customized to meet the specific needs of your facility. Equipment adaptation is carried out in parallel with the development of efficient units for devices that consume minimal energy.
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We always make extremely precise calculations and provide assistance in choosing the optimal cleaning systems, which usually takes 1 to 2 days.
Head of Engineering,
Vladimir Nikulin
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