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Amine Scrubber: Types, Construction, Calculation

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Author: Michael Klepik, Chief Executive Officer

What Are Amines?

Amines refer to a class of chemical compounds that contain a nitrogen functional group (NH2) in their molecules. Amines find application in various industrial sectors as reagents, solvents, additives, and other chemical products. Their uses may encompass the synthesis of polymers, the production of fertilizers, the development of pharmaceuticals, as well as their utilization in the manufacturing of food additives and other chemical processes.

Why Is Amine Purification Necessary?

The purification of air from amines can be crucial in various contexts and industries for the following reasons:
  • They can be harmful to human health at high concentrations. Purifying the air from these substances helps prevent potential effects on the respiratory system and other organs.
  • In industrial and laboratory settings, air quality standards may exist, and the removal of amines may be necessary to comply with these standards.
  • Amines have distinctive odors that may be undesirable. Air purification helps eliminate unpleasant smells.
  • They contribute to the corrosion of metallic surfaces. Removing them from the air prevents equipment damage.
  • In certain manufacturing processes, amine compounds can impact chemical reactions or catalysts, leading to undesirable effects.
Therefore, the removal of amines from the air may be necessary to ensure safety, compliance with standards, and the maintenance of normal production conditions.

Scrubbers

An amine scrubber is essential for removing amines from gas streams, preventing their release into the environment and ensuring compliance with emission regulations. They effectively remove (tri-) (di-) (mono-) methylamines, (tri-) (di-) (mono-) ethylamines, and others.

Advantages:
  • Does not clog with various substances.
  • High resistance to varying loads.
  • Stability to temperature fluctuations.
  • Ease of operation.
  • The gas cleaning process generates almost no waste.

Operating Principle

Amine gas scrubbers are used to filter gas streams from amines as well as solid and gaseous pollutants, involving a system for delivering liquid to the working area and a drainage system for processed liquid (sludge). The cleaning process occurs with water, so to prevent splashing into the surrounding space, splash or mist eliminators are necessary.

The apparatus can be a vertical column or a horizontally oriented block. The latter modification is preferred by customers who require a compact device.
TORNADO ST
TORNADO ST

Types of Amine Scrubbers

The following types of scrubbers are particularly effective for the removal of amines:
  • Amine scrubber foaming, also known as a tray tower or plate column, utilizes movable trays inside. The cleaning system is based on mass transfer processes in the column, where special trays and stabilizers are installed. A foamy layer is created on them, capturing all the impurities. Has a high cleaning efficiency due to the constant bubbling of the liquid inside the scrubber. Non-standard dimensions for a filter can be customized based on the client's specific technical requirements, providing optional design flexibility.
How does a TYPHOON Tray Scrubber work
  • Spray tower scrubber (spray chamber scrubber) is a vertical column with multiple layers of nozzles inside for gas scrubbing. The spraying system consists of several stages with nozzles placed inside the scrubber housing. The nozzles are arranged in such a way that water washes the gas from various directions. A droplet catcher is installed at the top of the apparatus.
  • Packed bed scrubber with a vertical mass-exchanging column with random packing inside (Raschig rings, Pall rings, Intalox rings, Torch-Air rings, etc.) and an automatic irrigation system. Upgrade your industrial gas treatment system with our state-of-the-art amine scrubber unit.
  • The purification process relies on mass exchange occurring within the throat of the Venturi tube. Here, air accelerates, interacting with contaminants. The liquid within the tube is atomized into fine or ultrafine droplets (depending on the Venturi tube type), effectively absorbing the contaminants into these minute liquid droplets.

Construction

Amine scrubber design is a critical aspect of ensuring optimal performance and efficiency in gas purification processes.
  • The scrubber housing consists of a column inside of which cascade and stabilization grids or nozzles are installed, depending on the type of design.
  • The liquid recirculation tank is equipped with a gas inlet flange and a hatch for sludge and pulp discharge. The tank bottom is angled for convenient cleaning.
  • Spraying nozzles supplied with water for wetting purposes.
  • Circulation pump.
  • Pump connection system to the scrubber.
  • Droplet catcher at the top of the scrubber.
Efficient gas scrubbing relies on the meticulous engineering of amine scrubber parts, featuring components

Calculation

To perform an effective calculation for the amine scrubber, please provide us with:
  • Required capacity, kfm.
  • Gas temperature.
  • Composition of the gas-air mixture, chemical formula.
  • Pollutant concentration before entering the scrubber, ppm.
Unlock unparalleled efficiency in gas purification with our cutting-edge amine scrubber solution. Contact us today to elevate your gas scrubbing processes to the next level of excellence.
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We always make extremely precise calculations and provide assistance in choosing the optimal cleaning systems, which usually takes 1 to 2 days.
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Vladimir Nikulin
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